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June 2015


The Pigeon Game


Steam Fairground


Contractions 4


Contractions 5


Contractions 6


The Pigeon Game (9 June 2015)

Time to put on your Reporter's Hat and take down verbatim from Mr Pigeon for your lead story:

I have decided to give the garden at number so-and-so a miss in future. When I first came across it, I saw lots* of sparrows eating on the lawn, pecking amongst the roses and sitting around the birdbath. I thought it would be a good idea to go down and investigate. Well, I did not get a very friendly reception and I would just like all you shorthand reporters to know about it, as I am sure you want a good story to practise on. As I was saying, I saw that this was a garden with possibilities, so I flew in to have a look. There was no-one about and I cleaned up quite a few crumbs of bread that the others had missed, plus those bits that the sparrows had dropped under the bushes by the fence. I thought, I’m on to a good thing here and it might be the right place to settle with Mrs Pigeon and bring up our family.

* "lots" and "masses" Insert the vowel, as these are similar in shape and meaning

It's always worth checking the buckets


That was a little while ago and we both enjoyed several reasonable meals before the sparrows could swoop in. But recently as I came out of the greenery I was absolutely shocked to be chased off by someone waving a newspaper at me. I tell you, I got out of there as quick as a flash. The pesky person went back inside the house and as there were still a few crumbs visible in the centre of the lawn, I flew back down. I was just about to peck at the first crumb when I was chased off again. We kept up this ridiculous game for a while, and eventually I got just three crumbs, but finally had to wait on the roof and watch the sparrows finish it all. But this place seemed to be a good one to put on my Return Visit list (pending confirmation, i.e. more quantity) so I decided I would try again at intervals.

Collared dove


Next day I saw two wood pigeons wandering around and I thought, hey it’s all on again, let’s go down and have a quick look. But no, hardly anything left of a decent size. I walked up and down checking the long grass for missed pieces. Then I noticed someone sitting in the greenhouse. They looked up and saw me, and came at me with what I now know is a fluffy nylon duster, but as far as I could make out at the time, it looked like a bundle of stolen feathers from some unfortunate* victim, so I flew away really quickly. I’m here to tell you it really put the frighteners* on me. Even from the safety of the neighbour’s roof, seeing it being waved about was really scary and my heart was pounding ten to the dozen.

* "unfortunate" Optional contraction


* "frighteners" Not in dictionary

Good old Woody

Somehow the food supply in this garden seems to have* vanished. I see single pellets being thrown at the new parent sparrows who are hopping about excitedly on the rose branches outside the kitchen window, but as each pellet seems to be magnetically attracted to one particular sparrow, I never stand any chance of getting one. The odd peanut appears but that also always lands at the feet of one of the collared doves so I never get a look in. An occasional piece of soaked stale bread lands right in front of the blackbird, who is very territorial and possessive at the moment*, so nothing for me there. We did have a good day recently sunbathing undisturbed on the garden path, but as there was no prospect of lunch afterwards, we will probably not be making it our regular lounging* spot.

* Omission phrases "seems (to) have" "at (the) moment"

* "lounging" Insert vowel, as it could be misread as "lunching"


The lazy and the diligent


All I can do now is to wait until there is absolutely no-one about, and then scout* round to clear up. Unfortunately*, the offerings are not enough for us, there are no reasonable sized pieces to be found, and after a minute or two of wandering up and down, it seems to me* that this is a complete waste of time*, especially as I might be missing something more substantial in another garden. So despite a promising start, this particular garden is not really a good place for me or Mrs Pigeon, all the future baby pigeons and all our numerous friends and relatives. We have decided to hang out somewhere else with better prospects and have given up on this location. A terrifying duster plus a hungry tum is just too much to put up with. But I still can’t work out why we were not made as welcome as the other birds. It’s a complete mystery. (765 words)

* "scout" Insert vowel, as "scoot" could also make sense here


* "unfortunately" Optional contraction

* Omission phrase "seems (to) me" "was(te of) time"

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Steam Fairground (21 June 2015)


Jubilee Steam Gallopers

Last weekend we went to see Carter’s Steam Fair which was set up in Bel Air Park in Dulwich, South London. As we got off the train, immediately we could hear the familiar organ music drifting over the trees at the edge of the park. We exited the station, went over the pedestrian crossing immediately outside and a short walk past the tennis courts brought us to the wondrous sight of a large collection of fairground rides from the past, all assembled on the grass in a corner of the park and in full operation. The first thing I noticed was the faint aroma of oil and smoke wafting past occasionally, which set it apart from other ordinary fairgrounds, enough to give an air of historical authenticity, but not so much as to spoil the fresh air and sunshine.


This is a traditional funfair, begun in 1976, made up of rescued and renovated steam-powered rides dating from the first part of the twentieth century. The magnificent Jubilee Steam Gallopers ride dates from 1895 with a 1900 Gavioli organ providing the music. I was delighted to see many rides that I recognised from my own past, although at that time they were generator-powered. As we arrived not long after the opening time of midday, there were no crowds, and I took the opportunity to get clear photos of all the rides and decorations without having to work around people or wait until someone moved or walked on. At every turn I found another skilfully* painted item in the traditional fairground style, with 3D lettering and brilliant colours.

* "skilfully" Insert last vowel, as "skilful" would also make sense here

Gavioli organ


As well as the patterns*, there are countless cameo portraits of figures from history, the music world (to match the music being played on each ride) and other relevant pictures to enhance the attraction. The Dive Bomber and Chair-O-Planes* had pictures of early aeroplanes*, the target shooting galleries had a native American in full head-dress or African animal safari pictures. The Ghost Train had the usual scary characters. I was reminded of the past when we used to try and peek through the doors as the car went through but we could see nothing, as there are double doors to go through and one has to make do with listening to the rattling rails, the scary siren sounds and the occasional shriek from a passenger.

* "patterns" Keep the P clearly halved, to prevent it looking like "appearance" which also makes sense in this context.

* "Chair-O-Planes" Not in dictionary. It is clearer to write full strokes for "chair" rather than use the short form.

* "aeroplanes" Insert the vowel after the P, to differentiate it from "airplanes"

Dive Bombers, the cockpits also rotate on their own axis, so the passengers are never upside down



All the rides were familiar ones, including the Swing Boats and Dodgems, but the only one that was new to me was the Steam Yachts, which are two giant gondolas that swing back and forth* to ever greater heights. One has the Union Jack on its underside, and the other has the Stars and Stripes, which can only* be seen properly* when the boats are in full height swing. In the centre is the steam engine, with brass work all gleaming, and on the boards surrounding the ride are beautifully* painted pictures of various historical steam vessels at sea.

* Omission phrase "back (and) forth"

* "only" Use this form in phrases if it joins conveniently

* "properly"Insert the first vowe, and the diphone in "appropriately", as they are similar in shape and meaning

* "beautifully" insert last vowel, as "beautiful" would also make sense here




Having walked all round several times, we retired to another part of the* park for our sandwiches, and when we returned, the crowds had grown. The sun came out and the smell of candy floss and hamburgers began to pervade the air, as the place filled up with families and children. Now my photos were much more* interesting, as the rides came alive, being full of passengers instead of just one or two*. As I stood by the Octopus ride, I felt as if I had stepped into a time machine and was back at Blackheath Fair in the 1970’s. The biggest difference today was that everyone was taking pictures and movies with their mobile phones, which didn’t exist then, and indeed some of the rides warned against mobile phones falling out of pockets whilst the rider was being flung around.

* Omission phrases "another part (of) the" "much mo(re)" "one (or) two"

"part" is only written like this in phrases. The "of" is omitted, rather than use an F Hook, as that would look too much like "number of".



I could not* help but compare this with the giant Christmas fairground that we visited last December in Hyde Park*. That was very much larger and set up for an extended period over Christmas and New Year*. It was full of flashing and chasing neon lights and dayglo* paintwork, continuing the tradition of loud colours and even louder music, and many of the familiar rides were present in newer “plumage”, brighter and faster. Both of these fairs were enjoyable but for different reasons. The Christmas one was very much better at night, when everything was brightly lit. My main interest in Carter’s fair was because I had been on those types of rides in the past, so it was “Memory Lane” time, as well as enjoying the decoration and artistry.

* "I could not" When phrasing, "could" is generally written separately to avoid confusion with "can", but in the negative it can be joined, as "could not" is a completely different outline from "cannot"


* See blog article for December 2014 "Christmas Lights"

* "year" Only thus in phrases

* "day-glo" was the brand name of a type of fluorescent paint, so no letter W on the end




The other fascinating feature is how you can watch the ingenious workings of many of the machines and see clearly how they operate. This to me is much more* interesting than the modern ones with computer controlled and synched music, strobe lighting effects and tacky plastic figures speaking to passers-by! I am very glad that someone has rescued the old rides and renovated them as originals, without trying to update or change them. It must have been* quite a challenge to do this and still conform to the present-day safety rules, which are more stringent than they ever were in the past.

* Omission phrases "much mo(re)" "it must (have) been"


Steam Yachts

It is gratifying to see these interesting and historical pieces of machinery revived and used for their original purpose, which is the best way* of preserving them, as it pays for their maintenance and restoration of future ones, and also encourages others to take an interest and do the same and maybe take on similar projects. A scrap yard would be a sad place for these pieces of fun that really ought to be swirling and whizzing around on a lovely sunny day in the park or village green. (952 words)

* Omission phrase "bes(t) way"

www.visit.carters-steamfair.co.uk/rides/rides.html Description, photos and history of all the rides

www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23313762 BBC video article on Joby Carter’s sign-writing

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Contractions 4 (16 June 2015)

I think that by now you have PROBABLY come to find that Pitman’s Shorthand* is an EFFICIENT way to write very quickly, as long as you have done SUFFICIENT practice. Most shorthand systems are more EFFICIENT than longhand. Their EFFICIENCY depends on what you intend to use them for. The more training you do, the more PROFICIENT you will be. All these words come from the Latin word for “do, make, PERFORM”, as also seen in “fact” and “effect”, and this is a big hint at how you can use your time more EFFICIENTLY to increase skill and speed. Writing the outlines is a much more* EFFICIENT way to learn them than just reading. It is INEFFICIENT to look up new outlines and then fail to PRACTISE them, as they can so easily be forgotten a few moments later. If you use your time INEFFICIENTLY, your memory will be DEFICIENT in the information you need. This DEFICIENCY must be made up in order to* be successful.

* Omission phrases "Pitman's Sho(r)thand" "much mo(re)" "in ord(er to)"

If you give your studies INSUFFICIENT time and therefore only have INSUFFICIENT knowledge of the system, your PROFICIENCY will be low and your goals may seem out of reach. I am sure you are SUFFICIENTLY motivated to spend extra time PRACTISING, in all those spare minutes when you cannot do other things straight away. The most EFFICIENT method is to have a PRACTICE drill book made up and ready to use IMMEDIATELY. Every PROFICIENT writer has had to do this in order to* get to their present level of PROFICIENCY.

* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"

The members were UNANIMOUS in their agreement to working to the new system. The proposal was voted on and carried UNANIMOUSLY. All those present were UNANIMOUS in their desire to see the improvements carried out*. We have been to town to buy a new school UNIFORM. The colours of the UNIFORM are blue and grey. The paving stones must be* laid UNIFORMLY so that there are no unsafe edges to trip over. The committee’s reactions were UNIFORMLY positive towards the new plans. We are aiming to achieve a UNIFORMITY of style and appearance throughout all our stores. All the items must be* handed over, HOWSOEVER they were acquired. May you find peace and happiness WHERESOEVER you look. We wish* you a safe and pleasant journey, WHITHERSOEVER you travel.

* “carried out” Halving to represent the T of "out"

* Omission phrase "mus(t) be"

* “we wish” Write the W at a lower angle so the Ish goes through the line. Write a slightly steeper angle to get the Ish on the line for "we shall".

Amongst all the scribble I was able to DISTINGUISH a few words of English. Today we have a very DISTINGUISHED visitor speaking at our meeting. The animal has a DISTINGUISHING mark on its back. This product is DISTINGUISHABLE by the serial number marked on the base. This writing is INDISTINGUISHABLE from scribble and needs to be improved IMMEDIATELY. He knows the language so well that he is INDISTINGUISHABLE from a native of the country. Please EXTINGUISH the candles before leaving the room. All hope for a speedy solution seemed to be EXTINGUISHED. The men are in the process of EXTINGUISHING the fire at the house. This type of chemical fire is INEXTINGUISHABLE by water. He was unwilling to RELINQUISH his role at the company. He has RELINQUISHED all ownership of the land and house. With their new jobs ready to be started, they were eager to be RELINQUISHING their* duties at the factory.

* "relinquishing their" Doubling to represent "their"

The following contractions leave out a middle consonant or syllable. The DESTRUCTION of the old buildings will start next week*. The storm was very DESTRUCTIVE and damaged most of the houses. He behaves very DESTRUCTIVELY when he finds himself in such a situation. The OBSTRUCTION in the road has caused an accident. The official was very OBSTRUCTIVE and prevented us from doing our job. The PRODUCTION of the goods will be increased next month*. Our farm is very PRODUCTIVE since we brought in the new methods of PRODUCTION. The workers are doing their jobs very PRODUCTIVELY. We felt it was UNPRODUCTIVE to criticise the staff without giving them extra training. The INTRODUCTION of the new equipment has greatly improved PRODUCTIVITY. The REINTRODUCTION of the bonus system has been well received. Solving this dispute between the staff members is outside of my JURISDICTION. It was clearly within the judge’s JURISDICTION to resolve the matter between the two people involved.

* Omission phrases "ne(k)s(t w)eek" "ne(k)s(t mon)th"

This person is in charge of the REPRODUCTION of all our literature. The REPRODUCTIVE health of the sheep was of concern to the farmer. These new proposals are very interesting from our PERSPECTIVE. We have to keep things in PERSPECTIVE and hear all sides of the story. The art students were studying PERSPECTIVE drawing at the college. The ABANDONMENT of these plans will have a serious effect on economic growth. We have an APPOINTMENT with the head teacher this morning. The family suffered great DISAPPOINTMENT when they found that the house was sold. We are going to ask for the REAPPOINTMENT of the safety officer as soon as possible*. We have been given an ASSIGNMENT to find out all we can about this company. The REASSIGNMENT of the operatives to this job will greatly improve the flow of the work. The ATTAINMENT of high speed will lead to CONTENTMENT amongst the shorthand students. The theological speaker talked for an hour on the subject of* the ATONEMENT* and redemption.

* Omission phrases "as soon as poss(ible)" "on (the) subject of the"

* "atonement" Same contraction as "attainment", therefore insertion of the 2nd vowel might be helpful, although not dictionary

We have a CONTINGENCY plan in place in the event that the speakers do not arrive in time. The STRINGENCY of the discipline produced a very stern atmosphere at the school. The EMERGENCY services arrived on the scene very quickly. The other motorists were in DANGER of being distracted. We are well aware of the DANGERS of night driving. It is very DANGEROUS to cycle without lights on this road. He was driving DANGEROUSLY and without due care and attention. He put other road users in DANGER by his behaviour. We would never do anything to ENDANGER others. The tiger is an ENDANGERED species and needs special protection. I think of my library as a place of ENTERTAINMENT as well as ENLIGHTENMENT. Let me offer you some ENLIGHTENMENT regarding the necessity for constant practice! If you can make it a pleasant ENTERTAINMENT as well, then you will be in no DANGER of missing out any words.

The two ladies wore IDENTICAL dresses to the party. They were IDENTICALLY dressed but they did not seem to mind at all. I have kitted out my kitchen with the new range from our local IRONMONGER’S shop. Nowadays IRONMONGERY does not have to be made of metal, it simply means hardware for the house and home. One could send a MESSENGER to the office instead of going ONESELF. It is beneficial to sometimes give ONESELF a day off from PRACTISING. He used his shorthand to produce his first MANUSCRIPT for his book. There were dozens* of PASSENGERS waiting at the barrier. I waited with all these STRANGERS for my train to come in. HENCEFORWARD* I will be catching an earlier train. He started a new business and THENCEFORWARD* began to prosper in his affairs.

* "dozens" Helpful to insert vowel, as it could look similar to "thousands"

* “henceforward, thenceforward” Compare the Optional Contractions for "henceforth" and "thenceforth" which omit the "-wd" stroke www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand.org.uk/contractions-optional.htm


The MINISTRY of Defence* has issued their new staff guidelines booklet. He has decided to leave his job and enter the MINISTRY. The kind MINISTRATIONS of the nurses greatly helped the patients in the hospital. His remarks were seen as a MONSTROUS insult to all concerned. We have been MONSTROUSLY treated all during this affair. The statue was a MONSTROSITY of iron and concrete. The salesman’s job is to DEMONSTRATE the machinery. He has been DEMONSTRATING vacuum* cleaners in the store all week. The professor DEMONSTRATED to the students how the chemicals reacted under various circumstances. I REMONSTRATED with the shop assistant but they would not replace the item. It is no good REMONSTRATING with them as they will not listen to you. You should not have REMONSTRATED with your teacher in that way. By way of REMONSTRATION, the whole group of people walked out. This action clearly DEMONSTRATED their opinions on this. (1306 words)

* It would be quicker to intersect M for Ministry in this phrase, as long as the context remained clear

* This is the dictionary version, when it was pronounced with a triphone = vac-ue-um

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Contractions 5 (26 June 2015)

I hope your KNOWLEDGE of shorthand is increasing and you are becoming KNOWLEDGEABLE about how to write everything and how to PRACTISE successfully. You can now speak KNOWLEDGEABLY to others, and your KNOWLEDGEABILITY on the subject* is becoming widely known. Those who doubted your capability will finally have to ACKNOWLEDGE your success, and those who have already ACKNOWLEDGED this fact may possibly be thinking of taking up the subject as well. acknowledging your triumphs is all very well*, but the best ACKNOWLEDGEMENT is a practical one, either in a new job opportunity or higher remuneration, or both.

* Omission phrases "on (the) subject" "very (w)ell"

She obtained a job as an ADMINISTRATOR in the personnel department. An ADMINISTRATORSHIP position is generally better paid than others. A female administrator is called an ADMINISTRATRIX although this term is not in general use. The two companies decided to AMALGAMATE in order to* take ADVANTAGE of the economies of scale. They will be amalgamating next year and we think the AMALGAMATION process will be a lengthy one. The AMALGAMATION of the two clubs will mean that they can share the same facilities and thus reduce costs to their members. It was not an ARBITRARY decision, and we have not ARBITRARILY chosen our course of action. This firm specialises in ARBITRATION in disputes between management and staff. They will ARBITRATE in the situation between these groups of people and hopefully resolve the DIFFICULTIES. He works as an ARBITRATOR in a large firm in the city. He has ARBITRATED in many disagreements between various parties.

* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"

This law firm specialises in BANKRUPTCY cases. This company has become bankrupt, in other words it has been legally declared insolvent which means it cannot pay its creditors. BANKRUPTCY is sometimes used to evade* creditors and unscrupulous persons may continue trading under another name. A machine with a defect or fault is described as DEFECTIVE. This computer is DEFECTIVE and needs to be replaced. We are planning to go to ENGLAND and learn the ENGLISH language. We will practise our skills on our friend who is an ENGLISHMAN. A native of ENGLAND may be called an ENGLANDER, but this term is not common. Their neighbour was an ENGLISHMAN who offered to help them with their ENGLISH language skills. This ENGLISHWOMAN* has travelled all over Europe. My friend thinks that these ENGLISHWOMEN* are not very fashionably dressed. We said it would be very UN-ENGLISH to speak to a stranger in this way.

* "evade" and “avoid” Always insert the 2nd vowel, as they are similar in outline and meaning

* "-woman -women" Note the semi-circle W faces different ways in each of these, to show the different vowels "wooman" and "wimmin"

As nouns, the emphasis is on the first syllable Eng-. If these were adjective+noun i.e. English man, English women, then the emphasis would be on the first syllable of the noun, and each word written separately in both longhand and shorthand to reflect this.

This lady* is the EXECUTIVE officer in charge of investigations. She could be called an EXECUTRIX but again this term is not commonly used. He is the Chief EXECUTIVE of the company. I have named my brother as the EXECUTOR of my Will*. You can also appoint a solicitor to be the EXECUTOR of your Will and affairs. They can take on the EXECUTORSHIP of any matter that you need help with. They can make INVESTIGATIONS to find out all the facts* and undertake the IDENTIFICATION of those who should be contacted. This book helps with the IDENTIFICATION of plants and animals in the countryside. All the suitcases had an IDENTIFICATION tag on the handle. It was very INCONSIDERATE of him to behave in this way. Their INCONSIDERATE actions have resulted in a disagreement between them*. This employee was behaving very INCONSIDERATELY to the customers. His regular INCONSIDERATE behaviour and speech resulted in termination of his employment.

* "lady" Insert first vowel, as it could look like "lad" or "laddie", or "elder" if written hastily.

* The noun "will" is a full outline. Only the verb "will" uses the plain L stroke in a phrase.  For clarity the longhand often uses the initial capital for the legal document, but lower case for the noun "will" meaning "intent/desire/volition".

* Omission phrases "all the (f)acts" "betwee(n) them"

The lawyer undertook an INVESTIGATION into the FALSIFICATION of the documents. The employee was found guilty of FALSIFICATION of the FINANCIAL records. He planned to falsify the records, although he knew that giving false information was illegal. The managing director has a very INFLUENTIAL position on the board. This new information has been very INFLUENTIAL in helping him make a decision. He is an INTELLIGENT person with a sharp mind. We need an INTELLIGENT answer to this problem as soon as possible. His speech is clearly INTELLIGIBLE, but his writing is completely UNINTELLIGIBLE. In this situation we need someone to use their INTELLIGENCE and come up with an answer. The child is not UNINTELLIGENT but merely needs encouragement with her school work. At the interview he answered all the questions* INTELLIGENTLY. The INTELLIGENTSIA is the name for intellectuals considered as a social or elite group.

* "questions" Optional contraction

The LEGISLATURE is the branch of government with the power to make or change laws. In other words they are a LEGISLATIVE body. We have received* the new LEGISLATIVE guidelines. In my new job I have to learn all the LEGISLATIVE procedures for our company’s operations. It will take me a MINIMUM of a year to learn everything about the job. The staff were negotiating for an increase in the MINIMUM wage for their department. This student does the MINIMUM of study, and his NEGLIGENCE is likely to cause him to fail his exams. After the unfortunate
* accident, the firm was prosecuted for NEGLIGENCE. NEGLIGENCE is when someone NEGLECTS to do what they should.

* Omission phrase "we have (re)ceived"


* "unfortunate" Optional contraction

The PARLIAMENTARY debate on this matter has been going on all week. Mr Smith is the PARLIAMENTARY candidate who is standing for election. He was well acquainted with all the PARLIAMENTARY procedures that were necessary. He had to answer many questions* from the PARLIAMENTARY committee. Something that is not consistent with PARLIAMENTARY procedure or practice is called UNPARLIAMENTARY. It is QUESTIONABLE whether he intends to finish the job properly. My teacher said it was QUESTIONABLE that I would pass all the exams this year. The other students will UNQUESTIONABLY do very well* in the end of term exams. He reminded us of the QUESTIONABLENESS of taking this dangerous course of action. UNFORTUNATELY* she is a person of very QUESTIONABLE morals.

* "questions" "unfortunately" Optional contractions

* Omission phrase "very (w)ell"

I doubt whether the stain on this shirt is REMOVABLE. Ink stains are not generally REMOVABLE from clothing. Is this difficulty REMOVABLE or do we have to work around it? The heavy stone is UNREMOVABLE without some special machinery. His confidence is IRREMOVABLE and I am sure he will succeed. The builder’s work was perfectly SATISFACTORY* and we shall be using him again. The students gained SATISFACTORY results* in their exams. I am glad to report that they have completed the job SATISFACTORILY. This work is most UNSATISFACTORY and needs to be corrected. The outcome was UNSATISFACTORY and we will be sending in a report to that effect. We received DISSATISFACTORY service at the hotel and will not be returning there. (1058 words)

* Omission phrases "perfect(ly) satisfactory" "satisfactory (re)sults"*

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Contractions 6 (27 June 2015)

This is the last article in this series PRACTISING the main contractions, although there will be another set for the optional contractions later on. My friends were very SYMPATHETIC when I told them the news. I am sure that SYMPATHETIC words followed by helpful actions is the best course to take. The teachers were very UNSYMPATHETIC when the lazy student failed his exam. Although they were UNSYMPATHETIC, they did offer some pointers to improve* on future PERFORMANCE. The lady received a TELEGRAM informing her of what had happened. A TELEGRAM was the quickest form of written communication, long before the arrival of emails and texting. The TELEGRAPHIC system has been completely replaced by modern technology. A TELEGRAPHIC style of speaking or writing means short, concise or clipped, and may suit a newspaper article.

* Both "improve" and "improvement" make sense here, so a full outline might be advisable (M + Pr + V + ment")

The scientists are studying the distribution of matter in the UNIVERSE. The UNIVERSE is another word for the entire cosmos. He is studying MATHEMATICS* at UNIVERSITY. The students visited several UNIVERSITIES in the country in order to* choose where they would like to study. It is a UNIVERSAL law that more study and work result in greater success and achievements. The researchers are looking for a UNIVERSAL cure for this problem. They dream of a UNIVERSAL language but MATHEMATICS* is the only universal language that we have. The UNIVERSALITY of these emotions makes the story attractive to everyone.

* "mathematics"
The shorter words "maths" and "math" are normal outlines, above the line and vocalised


* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"

The following contractions are based on short forms. ANYTHING you do in the way of practise will improve your speed. There is NOTHING better than finding you can write faster and still read it back. All previous doubts about your abilities will fade into NOTHINGNESS! EVERYTHING becomes possible and hopefully there is SOMETHING in the way of improved* employment or enjoyment at the end of it. It is quite REMARKABLE how the mind can absorb all this information without any trouble at all. Shorthand may appear to be a quite UNREMARKABLE subject, but it is REMARKABLE how this opinion can change if it leads to a better paid job opportunity. I am sure we are all THANKFUL for those who wrote the instruction books, and I am certainly not UNTHANKFUL to all my shorthand teachers in sharing their KNOWLEDGE and ENTHUSIASM.

* “improved” Optional short dash through last stroke of contraction to signify past tense

I have assembled all my papers TOGETHER in a file. You will need the vowel for the following: I have assembled all my papers to go in a file. TOGETHER we can make a difference to the situation in this town. Taking all these incidents TOGETHER, it is clear that a change needs to be made. ALTOGETHER is an adverb which means wholly, entirely or completely. We are ALTOGETHER confused by these events. I am ALTOGETHER at a loss as to understand what this means. “All TOGETHER” is a phrase that means roughly the same as the single word “TOGETHER” - we were all TOGETHER in the room, or you could say, we were together in the room. The friendship club was built on the principles of TOGETHERNESS and mutual support. WHENEVER I see a notepad, I want to cover it in shorthand outlines. WHENEVER I hear people speaking, I see the shorthand outlines. WHATEVER I am doing, I will be thinking of the exam that is coming up soon. Both parties must attend the court, WHENSOEVER they are summoned by the official.

The following are intersected contractions. Last year the management decided to ENLARGE the office space. It has now been ENLARGED by about fifty square metres. I thought of ENLARGING my house but it would be too expensive at present. We have the original photos and also all the ENLARGEMENTS that were made. They were made with an enlarger, which projects a larger image onto photosensitive paper. These INCANDESCENT light bulbs get very hot when they remain on for any length of time. We could see the INCANDESCENT glow from the furnace at the other end of the factory. INCANDESCENCE is light coming from a body caused by its high temperature. This equipment measures the level of INCANDESCENCE of this substance.

It is very INCONVENIENT to find a gap in one’s shorthand notes. This is an INCONVENIENCE that we can well do without. It might* be inconvenient to spare the time to practise but that is NOTHING compared to the INCONVENIENCE of failing the speed exam. My studies were interrupted most INCONVENIENTLY. NEVERTHELESS I will give it all the time I can spare. I will be doing all the exercises NOTWITHSTANDING the fact that* I have lots of other work to do as well. This person is not withstanding* the pressures very well at all. We are sending a letter to all the RATEPAYERS to tell them of the increases. The contraction is only used for the plural not for the singular ratepayer*. An UNPRINCIPLED* person is tricky, dishonest and lacking the morals EXPECTED in our society. This person is most UNPRINCIPLED and will do ANYTHING for personal gain.

* "might" is not phrased, so that it remains in its own position and does not look like "may", similarly can/could, no/not, know/note

* Omission phrase "notwithstanding the (f)act that"

* "not withstanding" Separate words, therefore contraction is not used

* "ratepayer" No reason is given in the books why this is so, but perhaps in the singular it would look too much like a cross, which would be a full stop

* "unprincipled" Note that "principled" is a full outline

As there was only CIRCUMSTANTIAL evidence, the judge had to dismiss the case. Direct evidence is the opposite of CIRCUMSTANTIAL evidence. A CIRCUMSTANTIAL report is one that gives details and particulars rather than GENERALISATIONS. The outline for INTEREST is formed like this merely to make derivatives more easily, which could not happen with a loop. I have an INTEREST in shorthand and if you are also INTERESTED you may borrow my book. It is an INTERESTING fact that* shorthand is never derided by those who have mastered it! INTERESTINGLY we now find ourselves firmly in this category. If you are DISINTERESTED, this means that you have no INTEREST WHATEVER and are indifferent to the subject. DISINTERESTEDNESS* and lack of motivation are the reasons why this course has been abandoned. The noun DISINTEREST* also means lack of bias or involvement. This dispute is best resolved by a DISINTERESTED party who has no involvement with the company. Once you have mastered all the contractions, you may be very INTERESTED in finding out how much it helps reduce hesitations and so increase speed. (1003 words)

* Omission phrase "fac(t) that"

* See note on "disinterest" and "disinterestedness" at www.long-live-pitmans-shorthand.org.uk/contractions-main.htm


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